Citations Practice


  • Read the following excerpts from two articles below.
  • Go to this form and answer the questions about in-text citations there.

Article 1:

Cell Phones and Texting Endanger Teen Drivers

by Nancy Jackson

Driver distraction has become a national problem, especially because cell phone use has increased. Look around the next time you’re on the road (as a passenger, of course), and see how many drivers are talking or texting on their cell phones. That can lead them to take their focus off the road and cause serious, even fatal, accidents.

Likewise, making phone calls, even with a hands-free headset, while driving is more dangerous than speaking to a passenger. That’s because a passenger will pause in conversation when the driver needs to concentrate on the road.

Driving is a new skill for teens, so doing multiple things simultaneously takes more effort for them than for more experienced drivers.


Jackson, N. M. (2013). Cell Phones and Texting Endanger Teen Drivers. In M. S. Jacques (Ed.), At Issue. Teen Driving. Detroit: Greenhaven Press. (Reprinted from Current Health Teens, 2011, March)

Article 2:

Humans Outnumber Rats in NYC

By Rachel Nuwer

Spend enough time in New York City, and you’ll likely spot a rat. Maybe it’ll be scampering along the subway tracks. Maybe it will run right across your path—even your foot. New Yorkers like to point out that there are as many rats in New York as there are people (8.4 million); over the summer, the New York Post reported that rats could outnumber people two to one.

This common knowledge, however, turns out to be a gross overestimate. While vermin are indeed populous, they’re not that populous, found statistician Jonathan Auerbach. In fact, the real ratio is closer to four-to-one, with humans winning.

. . .[I]nstead of gathering direct data from the field, Auerbach turned to an indirect measurement: rat sightings reported to the city’s 311 hotline. Using the number of city property lots, the number of rat reports that came from each of those 842,000 subsections and what we know about the number of rats that tend to occupy a single colony, Auerbach was able to extrapolate the population number as a whole, NPR writes. The value he arrived at—about 2 million—is significantly lower than the 8.4 million that most people assume occupy the sewers, subways and streets of New York.

Perhaps equally surprising for some New Yorkers is the recent announcement that NYC is not, in fact, the most rat-infested metropolis in the U.S. According to data released by the pest control company Orkin, Chicago, Los Angeles and Washington, D.C., are all rattier places than New York City. Whether those rodent populations exceed 8 million, however, is unknown.


Nuwer, R. (2014, November 5). Humans Outnumber Rats in NYC. Retrieved from