Tips & Hints

Cooking Tips  |  Cleaning Tips  |  Grilling Tips  |  Sewing Tips
Microwave Tips  |  Meal Planning  |  Foods by Other Names  |  Cooking for a Crowd
Stain Removal  |  Food/Cooking Information  |  Food Equivalencies

Cooking Tips

–  Stuff a miniature marshmallow in the bottom of a sugar cone to prevent ice cream drips.

–  Use a meat baster to “squeeze” your pancake batter onto the hot griddle…perfect shaped pancakes every time.

–  To keep potatoes from budding, place an apple in the bag with the potatoes.

–  To prevent egg shells from cracking, add a pinch of salt to the water before hard boiling.

–  Run your hands under cold water before pressing Rice Krispies treats in the pan….the marshmallow won’t stick to your fingers.

–  To get the most juice out of fresh lemon, bring them to room temperature and roll them under your palm against the kitchen counter before squeezing.

–  To easily remove burnt-on food from your skillet, simply add a drop or two of dish soap and enough water to cover bottom of pan and bring it to a boil on the stove.  It will be much easier to clean now.

–  Spray your plastic container with nonstick cooking spray before pouring in tomato based sauces.  No more stains.

–  When a cake recipe calls for flouring the baking pan, use a bit of the dry cake mix instead.  No white mess on the outside of the cake.

–  If you accidentally over salt a dish while it’s still cooking, drop in a peeled potato.  It will absorb the excess salt for an instant “fix me up”.

–  Wrap celery in aluminum foil in when putting it in the refrigerator.   It will last for weeks.  OR to keep it crisp- stand it up in a pitcher of cold water and refrigerate.

–  Brush beaten egg white over pie crust before baking to yield a beautiful, glossy finish.

–   Place a slice of apple or bread in hardened brown sugar to soften it back up to the way you bought it.  (Since you don’t have a Mr. Bear like me!!)

–  When boiling corn on the cob, add a pinch of sugar to help bring out the corn’s natural sweetness.

–  To determine whether an egg is fresh, immerse it in a pan of cool, salted water.  If it sinks, it is fresh…if it rises to the surface throw it away.

–  If you have a problem opening jars:  Try using latex dishwashing gloves.  They give a non slip grip that makes opening jars easy.

–  Potatoes will take food stains off your fingers.  Just slice and rub raw potato on the stains and rinse with water.

–  For Chinese dishes, when you have to slice meat into thin strips….partially freeze and it will slice easily.

–  Never cook a roast cold.  Let it stand for at least an hour at room temperature.  Brush will oil to seal in the juices.

–  For a juicer hamburger, add cold water to the beef before grilling (1/2c to 1 pound of meat).

–  To freeze meatballs, place them on a cookie sheet until frozen.  Place them in plastic bags and they will stay separated so that you may remove as many as you want.

–  To keep cauliflower white while cooking – add a little milk to the water.

–  To ripen tomatoes- put them in a brown paper bag in a dark pantry and they will ripen overnight.

–  When cooking cabbage, place a small tin cup or can half full of vinegar on the stove near the cabbage.  It will absorb all odor from it.

–  Use greased muffin tin as molds when baking stuffed peppers.

–  Don’t get upset if you over salted the gravy.  Stir in some instant mashed potatoes and you’ll repair the damage.  Just add a little more liquid to offset the thickening.

–  To reheat bread without cooking anymore:   For crusty types, dip them briefly in a bowl of water and toss them into a 350 degree oven until they are as hot as you like.

-When rolling out dough between two sheets of waxed paper, sprinkle the counter top with a few drops of water first to keep the paper from slipping.  Flip dough occasionally and lift off top sheet to smooth out any wrinkles.

– Keep a plastic sandwich bag in your can of vegetable shortening.  Use like a mitten to grease baking pans and sheets.  Or use the wrappers from stick butter and margarine to grease pans.

– If pie crust starts to get too dark during baking, cover loosely with foil.

–  When baking batches of cookies, fill 2 more cookie sheets at once so you can bake one while another cools.

– Dip cookie cutters in flour before cutting sticky dough.

– Out of unsweetened chocolate?  For baking, 3 tablespoons unsweetened cocoa powder and 1 tablespoon shortening equals 1 ounce square of chocolate.

– Test freshness of yeast by adding a pinch of sugar when dissolving it in water.  If mixture doesn’t foam within 10 minutes the yeast is dead.

– When yeast dough recipe calls for letting the dough rise “until doubled in bulk,” here’s how to tell if it has.  Press two fingers firmly in the cener of the dough.  If the dents remain after you take your fingers out, the dough has doubled.

– To punch down dough, push your fist in to the center, then fold in the sides to get rid of any air bubbles.

– A check for baking powder effectiveness.  Put 1/2 teaspoon in 1/4 cup hot water.  If the water bubbles, the baking powder is still fresh enough to use.

– Burnt cake or bread?  Grate off the blackened bottom using the largest openings of a four-sided grater.

-Do like we do in class and fill cupcakes and muffins into the muffin tin with a ice cream scoop.  If you have smaller scoop you can use it to make cookies too!

– Make clean cuts in an ice-cream cake by dipping knife in hot water between slices.

-Cut tricky to slice cheesecake with dental floss.  Stretch a length of floss across top of the cake and holding it taut, bring it down and through to the bottom of the cake.  Let go of one end and pull floss out.  (do this before guests arrive.)

–  Extend life of hard and semihard cheese such as Swiss, Gouda and Parmesan by rubbing chunks lightly with butter before wrapping and refrigerating.

– Some varieties of cheese – Cheddar, Swiss and mozzarella can be wrapped airtight and frozen up to 6 months.

– To bring out the flavor of hard and semihard cheese, let it stand at room temperature 30 minutes to 1 hour before serving.

– Heavy cream will whip faster if cream, beaters and bowl are well-chilled.

-Eliminate splatter when whipping cream this way; Measure a piece of plastic wrap large enough to cover the bowl, make a hole in the center and push the blade stems through and into the beater.

– Freeze dollops or piped rosettes of sweetened whipped cream on a flat, waxed paper-covered plate.  When hard, pop them into a plastic bag and freeze until needed.  Use to garnish cakes, puddings and other desserts.

– Keep a skin from forming on puddings of custards by pressing a piece of waxed paper of plastic wrap directly on the surface while it’s still warm.  Or stretch several layers of damp paper towels over the bowl.  (The towels let steam escape while keeping the top of the pudding smooth.

– Unless a recipes specifies otherwise, always use large-size eggs.  That’s invariably the size employed in recipe development.

-How to tell if eggs are fresh.  Put them in a bowl of cold, salted water.  They should sink to the bottom and stay there.

– When a recipe calls for eggs at room temperature, immerse refrigerated eggs, still in their shells, in warm water for a few minutes.

– Use a metal pastry blender to chop hard-cooked eggs for egg salad.

– Yolks are most easily detached from whites when cold, but whites will beat to greater volume when they’re at room temperature.  The solution?  Remove eggs from refrigerator, separate, then let stand one hour.  Or place whites in a bowl set in larger bowl of warm water and stir until they warm up.

– When separating eggs make sure whites go into a perfectly clean, dry bowl.  The tiniest bi of grease, egg yolk or moisture will keep them from beating properly.

– Freeze leftover raw egg whites individually in plastic ice-cubes containers.  Use for angel-food cake, boiled frosting, macaroons, meringues and souffles.

– Don’t freeze leftover egg yolks whole.  They won’t survive.  Instead stir them first with a fork, measure, then add either 1 tablespoon sugar or teaspoon salt per cup depending on what you plan to use them for.  (Don’t forget to note on the container label how many yolks there are.  Fourteen large-size equal 1 cup.)  Thaw in refrigerator before using for boiled dressing, egg pastry, custards and sauces.

– Before squeezing a lemon, lime or orange for juice, grate the peel and freeze it for later use in cakes or marinades.  Fresh lemon and lime juice freeze well too.

-Never add fresh or frozen kiwifruit, pineapple, mango or papaya to gelatin.  An enzyme in these fruits keeps the gelatin from setting.

– Don’t wash berries until just before using.  Hull strawberries after washing.

– To peel peaches and tomatoes easily, cover or immerse in boiling water for 1 minute.

– Keep honey or molasses from sticking to the measuring cup by greasing the cup first.  If the same recipe calls for oil, measure that first.

– When buying kitchen knives check the length of the tang (the metal parts that extends down the handle and is held in place with rivets)  The best knives have tangs as long as the handle.

– Pour cooking oil into a rinsed and dried squeeze  type pancake syrup or ketchup bottle.  You’ll find it easier to control the amount you squeeze into a pot or skillet.

– To stuff eggs, celery or cherry tomatoes, fill sturdy plastic food storage bag with stuffing ingredients.  Knead to blend, cut off corner and squeeze out filling.

– To cut sticky foods like marshmallows, prunes or dates, dip kitchen shears in hot water often or rub blades with oil.

–  To prevent spattering while frying, dry wet food thoroughly before adding to hot oil or fat.

– If your white sauce is lumpy, force it through a fine strainer or whir it in a blender or food processor briefly.

– To pull off skin chicken easily, hold it firmly with a paper towel.

– Any meats going to be cut up for stir-fry will slice more easily if first put in the freezer for 45 minutes to 1 hour.

– Bake meatballs on a foil-lined cookie sheet instead of pan-frying.  They keep their shape better and you can cook a lot at one time.  You can also cook them on a cooling rack on that same foiled lined cookie sheet so they will drip off the fat.

– To toast nuts…..In the oven, spread in a single layer on baking sheet or in pie pan.  Bake at 325 degrees  stirring occasionally about 10-15 minutes until they smell wonderful and look lightly browned.   In a skillet, stir often over medium heat until golden.  In microwave, spread nuts on a paper plate or in shallow dish and cook on high (1 1/2 minutes for 1/2 cup; 2 minutes for 1 cup).  Stir , then microwave 1 1/2 minutes longer of until golden.

– To peel garlic, put the cloves on a board and whack the flat side of a heavy knife or bottom of a saucepan.  Papery skin will peel right off.

– To chop a small amount of parsley or other fresh herb, pack sprigs (tough stems removed) in a small glass.  Put kitchen shears into the glass with tips touching bottom, and snip away until herb is chopped as finely as you want.

– To make gingerroot last longer and grate more easily, wrap it, unpeeled and freeze.  Peel, if you wish, then grate while still frozen.  Or thaw briefly and cut off a piece.  Return unused portion to freezer.

– Store red spice such as paprika and ground red pepper in the refrigerator.  They’ll keep their color and flavor much longer.

– Use white pepper instead of black in recipes where you don’t want to see tiny black specks.

– Freeze bread ends and stale bread in a food-storage bag.  When you have a decent amount, make bread crumbs in a blender or food processor.  Return crumbs to the bad and store in freezer to use in meat loaf or for crumb toppings and breading.

-If a recipe calls for superfine sugar and you don’t have any, whirl regular granulated sugar in a blender until fine.

– Don’t throw out leftover viniagrette-dressed green salad.  Whirl it in blender with tomato juice (don’t puree it too fine) Then serve chilledm like gazpacho, sprinkled with croutons, chopped cucumbers and onion.  Or put in the freezer to add to the base of any soup you make in the future.

– Process bits of leftover cheese in a food processor with butter, seasonings, herbs and some beer or wine.  Serve from a crock or bowl as a spread for crackers.

– Soak stale plain cakes with fruit juice (rum or sherry for the adults), then layer with vanilla pudding for a quick-to-fix trifle.

– Cut corn off the cob easily by sticking the ear of corn in the center of a tube cake pan to hold it while you cut down the cob with a knife.  The kernels will fall into pan.

– When a recipe calls for chopped or cut up canned tomatoes, snip them in the can using kitchen shears.

– Freeze leftover tomato paste in ready-to-use amounts by dropping tablespoons on waxed paper, freezing until firm, peeling them off paper and popping into a freezer container.

– Instead of a basting brush, use a leafy stalk of celery.  It eliminates brush washing and gives extra flavor to grilled meats, fish and poultry.  You can also tie a bundle of fresh herbs on the handle of a wooden spoon for the same purpose.

Cleaning Tips

–  Use air freshener to clean mirrors:  It does a good job and better still, leave a lovely scent to the shine.

–  Here’s some ways to use those Alka Seltzer tablets!!!

1.  To clean a toilet:  drop in 2 Alka Seltzer tablets, wait twenty minutes, brush and flush.  The citric acid and effervescent action will clean vitreous china.

2.  To clean a vase:  fill with water and drop in 2 tablets.

3.  To polish jewelry:  2 tablets in a glass of water and immerse jewelry for 2 minutes.

4.  To clean a thermos bottle:  Fill the bottle with water and drop in 4 tablets and let soak for an hour (longer if necessary).

5.  To unclog a drain:  Clear the sink drain by dropping 3 tablets down the drain followed by a cup of white vinegar.  Wait a few minutes, then run hot water.

6. To clean a coffee pot: soak overnight with 2-4 tablets of Alka Seltzer and will be clean for next morning’s coffee.

Bounce dryer sheets:

–  Dissolve soap scum from shower doors with a used sheet

–  Clean cat hair off fabric by rubbing the area with a dryer sheet and it will magnetically attract all the loose hairs.

–  Eliminate static electricity from window blinds by wiping them with a dryer sheet.  This should keep dust from resettling.

Clairol’s Herbal Essence:

–  Remove dirt ring on shirt collars which are oil stains with  shampoo.  Oily hair shampoo will remove them when rubbed into fabric.

–  If you run out of dishwashing soap, wash your dishes with Clairol’s Herbal Essence.  It’s perfect for camping because it’s biodegradable.

–  Clean grease from hands, just a dab though!

–  Put 2 capfuls to a bucket of water and soap up your car!

–  Add a capful of Herbal Essence to a tall jar of warm water.  The shampoo will cut through sebum oil from hairbrushes and combs.

Coca Cola:

–  Pour a can of Coke into the toilet bowl.  Let it sit for one hour, then brush and flush clean.

–  Rub your chrome bumper on your car with a piece of aluminum foil dipped into Coca-Cola will help remove rust spots.

–  Pour a can of Coke over the terminals of your car battery to bubble away the corrosion.

Colgate Toothpaste (regular paste):

–  Polish silverware, silver and gold and rinse thoroughly.

–  Squeeze Colgate on damp cloth.  Rub your piano keys well, wipe dry, and buff with a soft, dry cloth.  After all, ivory does come from an elephant’s tusk.

–  Remove ink spots from cloth.  Squeeze on spot, scrub, and rinse thoroughly.

–  Remove crayon from walls.  Brush the marks with Colgate with an old toothbrush.

–  Remove Kool-Aid mustaches from kid’s faces.  Rub it on and wash it off.

–  Remove scuffs from shoes.  Apply Colgate on with a tissue, rub and wipe off.

Distilled White Vinegar:

–  Remove stubborn stains from furniture upholstery and clothes.  Apply it directly to the stain, then wash according to the manufacturer’s directions.

–  Clean the hoses and unclog soap scum from a washing machine.  Once a month, pour one cup of vinegar into there washing machine and run through a normal cycle without clothes.

–  Clean lime deposit and calcium sludge from an automatic drip coffee maker.  Once a month fill the reservoir with vinegar and run through the brew cycle.  Rinse thoroughly with 2 cycles of cold water.

–  Clean rust from tools, bolts, and spigots.  Soak the rusted tool, bolt in undiluted in vinegar overnight.

–  Remove perspiration stains from clothes.  Apply one part vinegar to four parts water, then rinse.

–  Clean mineral deposits from a steam iron.  Fill the water tank with vinegar.  Turn the iron to the steam setting and steam iron an old rag to clean the steam ports.  Repeat the process with water, then thoroughly rinse out the inside of your iron.

Jif Peanut Butter:

–  Remove glue from from furniture.  Simply rub the dried glue with Jif.

–  Grease a car or truck axle.  After all, George Washington Carver developed axle grease from peanuts!

L’eggs Pantyhose:

–  Clean dentures from a small piece cut from your old nylons and polish your dentures.

–  Clean dust from window screen.  Simply run a balled up pair of L’eggs over the screen.

–  Clean the sink, bathtub, and bathroom tile with balled up pair to use as non-abrasive scouring pad.

–  Clean dust from under the refrigerator.  Place one stocking leg over the end of a broomstick and secure with a rubber band.  Slide broomstick under the refrigerator and move it back and forth.

Coffee Filters:

–  Clean windows and mirrors with coffee filters.  They are lint free!

Table Salt:

–  Clean dust of silk flowers.  Put the flowers in a large paper bag, pour in 2 cups salt, close the bag, and shake.  Salt knocks the dust off the flowers.  Remove the flowers from the bag and shake off the excess salt.

–  Clean up a broken egg or grease.  Pour salt immediately on the spill, let sit for twenty minutes, then wipe up.


–  Clean a varnished floor, woodwork, or furniture.  Cold Nestea makes an excellent cleaning agent for wood.

Lemon Juice:

–  Remove ink spots from cloth.  While ink is wet, apply lemon juice liberally to the spot, then wash garment in normal cycle with regular detergent in cold water.

–  Clean berry stains from hands.  Rinse with lemon juice.

–  Clean a microwave oven with 1/4 cup water to one cup water in a four cup microwave safe bowl.  Boil for 5 min. allowing the steam to condense on the inside walls of the oven.  Then wipe clean.

–  To clean, whiten, brighten and strengthen fingernails, soak nails in lemon juice for 10 min.  Then brush with a mixture of equal parts warm water and vinegar, then rinse well.

– Clean brass, copper and stainless steel kitchen sinks by making a paste from lemon juice and salt, scrub gently, then rinse with water.

Aluminum Foil:

–  Clean pots and pans when camping.  A crumpled up piece of aluminum foil makes an excellent pot scrubber.

–  Clean tarnished silverware.  Line a metal cake pan with foil and fill with enough water to cover the silverware.  Add 2 tablespoons baking soda per quart of water.  Heat the water above 150 degrees.  Place the tarnished silverware in pan so it touches the foil.  Do not let the water boil.  The hydrogen from the baking soda combines with the sulfur in the tarnish, removing the stains.

– Wrap celery in aluminum foil when putting in the refrigerator and it will  keep for weeks.


–  Clean decorative snow from windows.  Spray windows with WD-40 before spraying with artificial snow so the decorative spray will wipe off easier.

–  Remove chewing gum, crayon, tar, simply spray on an wipe.

–  Remove chewing gum from bottom of your shoe, spray on, wait and pull the gum free.

–  Clean crayon from a blackboard, spray on the crayon marks, let soak for ten minutes, then blot clean with a cloth.

A majority of the above tips came from the book “Polish your furniture with Pantyhose” by Joey Green

  • A sealed envelope – Put in the freezer for a few hours, then slide a knife under the flap. The envelope can then be resealed.
  • Use Empty toilet paper roll to store appliance cords. It keeps them neat and you can write on the roll what appliance it belongs to.
  • For icy door steps in freezing temperatures: get warm water and put Dawn dish washing liquid in it. Pour it all over the steps. They won’t refreeze. (wish I had known this for the last 40 years!)
  • To remove old wax from a glass candle holder, put it in the freezer for a few hours. Then take the candle holder out and turn it upside down. The wax will fall out.  (Personally…I just put hot water from the tap in a candle holder or tealight glass for a few minutes and the wax is soft enough to remove with a spoon.)
  • Crayon marks on walls? This worked wonderfully! A damp rag, dipped in baking soda. Comes off with little effort (elbow grease that is!).
  • Permanent marker on appliances/counter tops (like store receipt BLUE!) rubbing alcohol on paper towel.
  • Whenever I purchase a box of S.O.S Pads, I immediately take a pair of scissors and cut each pad into halves. After years of having to throw away rusted and unused and smelly pads, I finally decided that this would be much more economical. Now a box of S.O.S pads last me indefinitely! In fact, I have noticed that the scissors get ‘sharpened” this way!
  • Blood stains on clothes? Not to worry! Just pour a little hydrogen peroxide on a cloth and proceed to wipe off every drop of blood. Worksevery time!
  • Use vertical strokes when washing windows outside and horizontal for inside windows. This way you can tell which side has the streaks. Straight vinegar will get outside windows really clean. Don’t wash windows on a  sunny day. They will dry too quickly and will probably streak.
  • Spray a bit of perfume on the light bulb in any room to create a lovely light scent in each room when the light is turned on.
  • Place fabric softener sheets in dresser drawers and your clothes will smell freshly washed for weeks to come. You can also do this with towels and linen. Also, bars of soap in your dresser drawers. This lets the soap “dry out” and will last longer when you use it later on in the bath or shower.
  • Candles will last a lot longer if placed in the freezer for at least 3 hours prior to burning.
  • To clean artificial flowers, pour some salt into a paper bag and add the flowers. Shake vigorously as the salt will absorb all the dust and dirt and leave your artificial flowers looking like new! Works like a charm!
  • To easily remove burnt on food from your skillet, simply add a drop or two of dish soap and enough water to cover bottom of pan, and bring to a boil on stove top.
  • Spray your TUPPERWARE with nonstick cooking spray before pouring in tomato based sauces and there won’t be any stains.
  • When boiling corn on the cob, add a pinch of sugar to help bring out the corn’s natural sweetness.
  • Cure for headaches: Take a lime, cut it in half, and rub it on your forehead. The throbbing will go away.
  • Don’t throw out all that leftover wine: Freeze into ice cubes for future use in casseroles and sauces .
  • To get rid of itch from mosquito bites, try applying soap on the area and you will experience instant relief. Meat tenderizer on stings.
  • Ants, ants, ants everywhere … Well, they are said to never cross a chalk line. So, get your chalk out and draw a line on the floor or wherever ants tend to march. See for yourself.

When you get a splinter, reach for the scotch tape before resorting to tweezers or a needle. Simply put the scotch tape over the splinter, and then pull it off. Scotch tape removes most splinters painlessly and easily.

Grilling Tips

–  For charcoal grills, follow manufacturer’s directions for lighting coals at least 30 minutes before cooking begins to ensure  proper temperature.

–  When are the coals ready?  In the daylight, the coals should be completely covered with light gray ash.  After dark, the coals will glow red.

–  For gas grills, heat 5 to 10 minutes before.

–  For even cooking, place thicker foods in the center of the grill and smaller pieces on the edges and turn pieces frequently.

–  To retain juices turn with tongs instead of piercing with a fork.

–  To prevent over browning or burning of meats, brush sauces on during the last 15 to 20 minutes of cooking, especially sauces that contain tomato or sugar.

–  NEVER serve cooked meats on the same unwashed platter on which raw meat was carried to the grill.  All raw meat have food bacteria present that need to be cooked to order to kill them.  If you place your cooked hamburgers on the same plate they were brought in on, someone may get very sick!
Always use two separate plates for safety’s sake.

–  Always use long handled utensils on the grill, this allows a safe distance between you and the intense heat of the grill.

–  Do not use the same brush to add additional sauce, to prevent transferring any bacteria from the uncooked meat to the cooked meat.

–  Heat marinades and sauces left over from contact with raw meat to boiling, and boil 1 minute before serving.

–  Opened cans of food, such as peaches, can be heated directly on the grill.  If they have paper labels, be sure to remove them before placing the can on the grill.

–  When making kabobs or skewers of meat and veggies on the grill, add wedges of fresh pineapple.  Yummy!

–  Zippered plastic food storage bags are great for mess free marinating.  Place meat in bag and squeeze out all the air, allowing marinade to completely coat the food.  When it’s time to grill, take the bag outside and transfer marinated meat to the grill.

–  Grilling times vary with different climates and weather conditions.  When grilling in weather that is cool or windy, use slightly longer heating times as well as higher heat to speed the cooking.

–  To prevent food from sticking and to make cleaning the grill easier, brush the grill rack with vegetable oil or cooking spray.  Do this before heating the grill, so you won’t be handling a hot grill rack.  Never spray directly over lit fire!!!

–  Salt is usually omitted from a marinade because it tends to draw out the juices of uncooked meat and seafood.  For best results, salt food only after it is grilled.

–  The sooner the grill is cleaned after using, the easier cleaning will be.

–  Don’t be tempted to use a metal turner or spatula to press down on a hamburger patty while it’s cooking- you’ll squeeze out much of the flavorful juices.

–  An old tablecloth makes a good substitute grill cover.  Attach fabric tape  to the edges to hold the cover in place.

–  Toast your kaiser rolls, hamburger or hot-dog buns on the grill.  Cut sides down about 4 minutes or until golden brown.

–  Because of their lower fat content, turkey patties may stick to the grill unless the grill is oiled first.  For safety reasons, always brush a grill rack with oil before coals are lit or gas is turned on.

–  If you are ready to begin cooking but the coals are too hot, use tongs to spread them apart, or remove a few of them.  Of if you have an adjustable grill, raise the rack so it’s farther away from the heat.

–  Always marinate food in a nonmetal dish.  Acid based marinades, such as those with lemon juice or vinegar, can react with some metals and cause off flavor in the food.

–  To speed cooking or quickly cook foods partially without the risk of over browning, combine the talents of your grill with those of your microwave.  A general rule of thumb:  Microwave foods for only half of their total  microwave time if they are to finish cooking on the grill.  Plan preparation time so that foods can go directly from the microwave to the grill.  Do not let partially cooked foods stand for any length of time.  Have coals ready by the time foods are to be removed from the microwave so the food can immediately be placed on the grill.

Sewing Tips

1.  A bigger and better or more expensive machine is not always better.  Just buy a machine (new or second-hand) that is for your level of sewing.  Beginners don’t need a computerized machine to start on to become better at sewing.

2.  New packages of pins should never be stored in their original containers.  Always transfer them to a pin cushion.  So if they fall on the floor they are so easy to pick up.

3.  When sewing multiples of the same thing, don’t stop.  Sew your line, when you get to the end, lift the presser foot and put the next piece in and start sewing again.  When you are done clip all the connecting threads.  Much faster.

4.  Be sure to trim your seams with pinking shears to keep the edges from fraying after they’ve been washed.

5.  Having an iron handy to press your seams or hems really keeps things in place so you use less pins.

6.  When sewing things with glue use a strong needle and keep coating it with vegetable oil to keep it from sticking.

How to iron a shirt! (8th grade extra credit)

How to sew on a button! (8th grade extra credit)

Microwave Tips

First of all, did you know how a microwave operates???  Microwaves are emitted from the cathode ray tube that make all the molecules in the oven vibrate.  The vibration causes friction which we know causes heat.  The best example is to put both of your hands together and rub them together quickly.  Ah,  heat.  So, the heat inside your microwave is very misleading….it’s actually the heat from the food that is making it warm insidethe oven.  Did you also know… that if your plate is too hot to pick with your bare hands then you have over-cooked your food?  You’ve put so much darntime on that microwave that you were trying to cook the container too!

–  Moisture, sugar and fat attract microwaves most….so these ingredients will heat up quickly.

–  Small pieces of food cook faster than larger ones, so keep pieces uniform in size to prevent uneven cooking.

–  Allow food to stand in the microwave after cooking.  It lets the food to finish cooking and distributes the heat more evenly.

–  Arranging foods in circle with the thickest part to the outside will promote most even cooking.

–  Covering the food with a lid or plastic wrap, leaving a corner turned up to vent steam for faster cooking.  Use Wax paper or a paper towel to prevent spattering.

–  Elevating the food on a dish turned upside down to better cook the bottom center of very moist foods.

–  Checking the food at the minimum time is important to avoid overcooking.  Add additional time only if necessary.

–  If the microwave does not have a turntable, rotating the food 1/2 or 1/4 turn will help food cook more evenly.

–  Stirring food from the outer edge to the center helps even out and speed cooking.

–  Turning some of the food over after part of the cooking time can help even out cooking.
Food Cooking Time Suggestions:

Bacon – 45 seconds to 2 minutes per slice

Brown sugar (to soften) –  2 cups – check every 30 seconds

Chocolate chips – 1 cup – 3 to 4 minutes

Cream cheese (to soften)  – 8 oz pkg. – 1 to 1 1/2 minute

Margarine (or butter- to melt) – 1 stick – 45 to 60 seconds

Margarine (or butter- to soften) – 1 stick – 30 seconds

Muffins (to reheat) – 30 seconds per muffin

Meal Planning

When you are planning a meal the list below are the things you must consider on your plate.  In order for your meal to eye appealing and mouth watering you need to follow these guidelines….

Texture:  Chewy, mushy, crunchy are a few of the words you can use.  The foods for your meal must be a variety of textures.  Who wants to have a breakfast of oatmeal, yogurt and banana?  Your grandpa with no teeth?

Flavor:  Cheesy, tomatoes, garlic.  These are all flavors.  Don’t overuse them in a meal.. Tomato soup and tomato and mozzarella salad with Lasagna for the entree.  Too “tomatoey”.  Does all the food have cheese on it or in it.  Overkill!!

Shapes / Sizes:  Long, short, round, small are words to describe food.  Don’t tilt your plate if it has swedish meat balls, brussel sprouts and small white potatoes.  Yikes!  My food all rolled off my plate.  How about fish sticks with french fries and carrots sticks.  All long stuff.  Are you getting it yet?

Temperature:  Easy one, hot or cold.  Mix some hot stuff with cold stuff.  Only picnics can be all cold but that’s why people cook out on picnics these days.  Mixing the hot and cold keep the mouth and or body from getting overly hot or overly cold.  Ever start sweating when you eat a bowl of soup?  Or get the shivers from eating ice cream?  Now you know what I am talking about.

Color:  White, green, red, etc.  Remember learning your colors in kindergarten?  Well, it may be okay to wear all one color but not all on your plate.  Fish, rice and cauliflower?  Figure it out.  Boorring!  All white.  Can you come up with some all red or all green combinations.  I bet you can!

Now, that you know this key of fabulous food preparation, you must keep it your secret.  This information is not designed to embarrass your mom or grandmother during a holiday meal or to insult your date with.  Make a personal note to yourself and learn from it.  You look down and see batter dipped fish, corn, macaroni and cheese and cornbread being served at a friend’s house.  How nice is it for you to yell out “What’s with the yellow and orange theme here!”  Not very.  You may not be invited back.  Just keep these tips in mind and everyone will rave what a terrific cook you are.  AND when you are complimented, don’t give any secrets just say “why, thank you!”

Food or Cooking Information

Here are some other things to consider when figuring timing in cooking are:

Reflective and absorptive quality of the pan. Recent tests have shown that a whole hour can be cut from the roasting time of a 10 to 12 pound turkey if it is cooked in one of those dark enamel pans that absorb heat rather than in a shiny metal one that reflects it.
The insulative qualities of foil, when used in wrap-cooking.
Placement in an oven (yes, this CAN make a difference)
The temperature of the food at the onset of heating. (Room temp vs. refrigerated)

For non-yeast baked goods, decrease the baking powder or baking soda. For example, if making biscuits, use one teaspoon of baking powder for each cup of flour. You almost never need much more than 1/4 teaspoon of baking soda in anything unless the recipe calls for more than a cup of
buttermilk or sour cream or yogurt.

Oven Temperatures

An approximate conversion chart:

Electric         Gas mark    Description

225 F                 1/4           Very cool
250 F                 1/2
275 F                 1              Cool
300 F                 2
325 F                 3              Very moderate
350 F                 4              Moderate
375 F                 5
400 F                 6              Moderately hot
425 F                 7              Hot
450 F                 8
475 F                 9              Very hot


US all-purpose flour and UK plain flour can be substituted for one another without adjustment. US cake flour is lighter than these. It is not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.
Self-rising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoon baking powder and 1/2 teaspoon salt for each cup of flour.
US whole-wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.


Leavening agents
Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate. It must be mixed with acidic ingredients to work.
Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.
1 pkg. of active dry yeast = 7 grams = 1/4 oz. = 1 cube compressed yeast


Canned milk
Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans; both are thick and a weird color… but are not the same thing. Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed with sugar or another sweetener already. It isn’t found everywhere, but this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water. When mixed, add 3/4 cup granulated sugar.


UK corn flour is the same as US cornstarch. Potato flour, despite its name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour. It often can be substituted for cornstarch and vice versa.
Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or corn flour! What one can buy labeled `polenta’ really looks no different to cornmeal though. Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be used to mean plain cornmeal. Beware.
If you don’t have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount of all-purpose flour. However, unless whatever you’re adding it to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.


Sugar and other sweeteners
UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar. There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the same as UK castor/caster sugar.
Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for castor/caster sugar and vice versa. As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the substitute some time when it doesn’t need to be perfect.
Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere. Sugar (golden) syrup can be substituted. Corn syrup comes in two flavors – dark and light. Light corn syrup is just sweet; dark has a mild molasses flavor. A common US brand is Karo. Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown byproduct of cane sugar refining. The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight acidic, metallic component. If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2 parts sugar, 1 part water.


Shortening is solid; white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil. (A popular brand name is Crisco, and many people call all shortening  Crisco.) It is common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of the globe.
Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and left to set.
Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes; for example it makes very flaky pastry.
Deep-frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties. Butter and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil. Corn and peanut oils are both good.


If you don’t have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat (preferably oil) for each one ounce square.
US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also called bittersweet).
What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as “chocolate”. The stuff called “semi-sweet chocolate” by some folks is the US dark or UK plain.
“Bitter chocolate” is, apparently, the UK term for high quality plain chocolate. Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between “sweet dark,” “semi-sweet” and “bittersweet” (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be minor variations on a theme.
Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates, because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.


Buttermilk/Cultured Milk
If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour milk as a substitute. For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup. Don’t stir. Let it stand for five minutes before using.

Food Equivalencies

4 oz. plain/strong/sifted = 1 Cup all-purpose/self-rising/unbleached = 5 oz. unbleached white
6 oz. wholemeal/stoneground = 1 Cup whole wheat
4 1/2 oz. cornflour = 1 Cup cornstarch
6 oz. yellow corn meal/polenta = 1 Cup coarse corn meal/polenta
6 oz. rye flour = 1 Cup

7 oz. pearl barley =1 Cup
7 oz. rice/bulgar wheat/millet/wheat = 1 Cup
6 oz. semolina/ground rice/tapioca = 1 Cup
2 oz. fresh soft breadcrumbs = 1 Cup fresh soft breadcrumbs
4 oz. dried breadcrumbs = 1 Cup
3 1/2 oz. porridge oats = 1 Cup rolled oats

8 oz. light/dark soft brown sugar = 1 Cup (firmly packed)
1/2 oz. castor/caster/granulated sugar = 1 Cup granulated sugar
4 1/2 oz. icing sugar = 1 Cup sifted confectioners’ sugar

Fats and cheeses
1 oz. butter, margarine, cooking fat, lard, dripping = 2 Tbsp. butter, shortening, lard, drippings
8 oz. butter, margarine, cooking fat, lard, dripping = 1 Cup butter, shortening, lard, drippings
4 oz. grated cheese – cheddar type = 1 Cup
1 lb. grated cheese – cheddar type = 4 – 5 cups (packed)

Vegetables and fruit
1 small to med. onion = 1 Cup
4 oz. shelled peas = 3/4 Cup
4 oz. cooked sweet corn = 1 Cup
4 sticks celery = 1 Cup chopped
7 oz. chopped tomatoes = 1 Cup
3-4 oz. button mushrooms = 1 Cup
4 oz. black/redcurrants/raisins = 1 Cup
5 oz. raspberries/strawberries = 1 Cup
3 1/2 oz. dried beans = 1/2 Cup

Dried fruit and nuts, etc
5-6 oz. currants/ raisins, chopped candied peel = 1 Cup
2 oz. currants/sultanas/raisins, chopped candied peel = 1/3 Cup
8 oz. glace cherries = 1 Cup candied cherries
3 1/2 oz. sesame seeds = 3/4 Cup
5 oz. whole shelled almonds = 1 Cup
4 oz. ground almonds = 1 Cup
2 oz. chopped nuts = 1/3 – 1/2 cup
8 oz. peanut butter = 1 Cup

12 oz. clear honey/golden syrup/molasses = 1 Cup
11 oz. maple/corn syrup = 1 Cup
5-6 oz. jam/marmalade/jelly = 1/2 Cup

Allspice, mixed spice and five-spice

Allspice is the dried, unripe berry of a small tree. It is available ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles, casseroles, cakes & puddings. Also known as Jamaica Pepper.
Mixed spice is a classic mixture generally containing caraway, allspice, coriander, cumin, nutmeg & ginger, although cinnamon & other spices can be added. It is used with fruit & in cakes. (In America ‘Pumpkin Pie Spice’ is very similar).
Five-spice powder is a blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechwan pepper. It is used in Chinese cooking.

A Food by Any Other Name

This is your recipe resource guide.  If there is an ingredient in one of your recipes and you do not know what it is take a look here…..

Aubergine- US eggplant. (Purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable)
Beetroot – US beet
Bermuda onion – also called Spanish onion- a sweet onion. This may vary by region. Another possible alternative is the 1015 onion
Biscuits – in the UK, same as US cookies, small sweet cakes usually for dessert. In the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour, milk, and shortening, usually served with breakfast – small and similar to what much of the world refers to as ‘scones’.
Black treacle – similar to blackstrap molasses
Brinjal – Indian word for eggplant / Aubergine
Cabanossi – US pepperoni
Capsicum – another name for red/green/yellow bell peppers
Castor/caster sugar – somewhat finer than US granulated sugar. Similar to US superfine sugar.
Chickpeas – also called garbanzo beans, ceci beans
Chicken Maryland – in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh and drumstick attached. In the US, refers to any parts of chicken, crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.
Chinese parsley – also called cilantro and coriander
Cider – widely varying definition! A drink (almost) always made from pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic. US usage is typically that ‘cider’ is not alcoholic and ‘hard cider’ is. If in doubt, ask.
Cilantro – the leaf of the coriander plant. Also called Chinese/Thai/Mexican parsley, and green coriander.
Cockles – clams
Confectioner’s sugar – same as powdered sugar or UK icing sugar
Cookies – UK biscuits
Cordial – in the US, a synonym for liqueur in UK, NZ, Australia, a thick syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give a non-alcoholic fruit drink
Cornflower/cornflour – cornstarch. Used to thicken sauces etc. Usually made from wheat
Cornmeal – ground corn (maize).
Corrugate – US zucchini. A long, green squash, looks something like a cucumber.
Cream of wheat – sometimes called farina
Desiccated coconut – dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut shreds. In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened; this is not so common in other countries.
Digestive biscuits – almost the same as US graham crackers.
Donax – clams
Double cream – somewhat heavier than whipping cream
Eggplant – UK aubergine (which see)
Essence – US extract
Extract – UK essence
Farina – sometimes called cream of wheat
Filberts – also called hazelnuts
Garbanzo beans – also called chickpeas
Graham crackers – similar to UK digestive biscuits
Granulated sugar – somewhat coarser than UK castor/caster sugar.
Green onions – same as spring onions or scallions
Green shallots- an inaccurate but occasionally used description for spring onions
Grill – In the UK, the same as US broiler; in the US, a device for cooking food over a charcoal or gas fire, outdoors.
Habanero pepper – similar to Scotch bonnet pepper
Half and half – a mixture of half cream and half whole milk
Hazelnuts – sometimes called filberts
Heavy cream – same as whipping cream or UK double cream
Icing sugar – US confectioner’s or powdered sugar. The finest kind.
Ladyfingers – little finger-shaped sponge cakes used in desserts. “Ladies’ fingers” is the US vegetable okra.
Lemonade – in the US, a drink made of lemon juice, sugar and water; in the UK, a carbonated drink that doesn’t necessarily contain anything closer to a lemon than a bit of citric acid. Sprite (TM) and 7-Up (TM) are examples of what would be called lemonade in many countries.
Marrow – US summer squash. Also ‘vegetable marrow’.
Melon – a family of fruits. All have a thick, hard, inedible rind, sweet meat, and lots of seeds. Common examples: watermelon, cantaloupe
Molasses – similar to UK treacle
Pawpaw – papaya, also persimmons in some places, or even a third fruit, Asimina triloba. If I were you I’d check with the recipe author.
Polenta – same as corn meal, also, a thick porridge made from cornmeal. (also known as ‘cornmeal mush’, ‘mamaliga’)
Powdered sugar – same as confectioner’s sugar or UK icing sugar
Rock melon – cantaloupe
Scallion – also called spring onion or green onion or scallion
Scotch Bonnet pepper – similar to Habanero pepper
Shallots – not green/spring onion – small pointed members of the onion family that grow in clusters something like garlic and have a mild, oniony taste.
Single cream – US light cream
Spanish onion – also called Bermuda onion. Large and not as “hot” as standard onions. This nomenclature may vary in some regions. Often used to mean “Red Spanish Onion” which is not so much red as purple
Spring onion – also called scallion or green onion
Squash – a family of vegetables. All but two have a thick, hard, usually inedible rind, rich-tasting meat, and lots of seeds. A well known if not widespread example is the pumpkin. There are also things called summer squashes, which have edible rinds, milder meats, and usually fewer seeds. An example of this type is the zucchini or courgette.
Tomato sauce – in UK/NZ/A Australia, a homogeneous dark red sauce containing (typically) tomatoes, sugar, salt, acid, spices, – much the same thing as US ketchup. In the US, a more heterogeneous concoction, served in and on more foods such as pasta.
Whipping cream – in US, cream with at least 30% butterfat (light cream (18%) and heavy cream (36%))
Zucchini – UK courgette

Stain Removal Tips

There are eight basic techniques for stain removal: brushing, flushing, freezing, presoaking, pretreating, scraping, sponging, and tamping. Using the right technique along with the proper solutions with help ease the removal of the stain.

BRUSHING  is the first step used for removal of dry stains, ( i. e. mud). The fabric should be stretched out on a smooth surface and using a small stiff brush, brush the residue onto a sheet of paper.
 FLUSHING  is used to remove loosened residue and stain removing solutions from the fabrics. It is important if you are flushing on nonwashable materials, to control the spread of water through the garment. This is accomplished  by applying water with an eyedropper or spray bottle trigger which allows for direct placement of minimal amounts of water. Begin applying water, an absorbent pad is to be placed under the spot. This pad should be changed before the water and stains fills it up. If the fabric is washable, the article should be rinsed with warm water after flushing is  completed.
 FREEZING  is used to remove candle wax, chewing gum, and other gooey substances. Hold an ice cube against the stain until it is frozen. If the surface is nonwashable, place the ice cube in a plastic bag to avoid the area from becoming wet. After the stain has become solidified, it can be gently lifted or scraped off the surface.
PRESOAKING Garments that have become yellowed, grayed, or heavily soiled should be presoaked in a solution for no longer than 30 minutes. Items that are not colorfast should only be presoak very briefly. Bleach, laundry detergent,  or an enzyme presoak can be used, however, do not use bleach and an enzyme together. Items should be rinsed thoroughly before laundering to remove any presoak solution left on them.
PRETREATING Oily, greasy stains should be pretreated with a spray of liquid laundry detergent, stain removing spray, bar soap, or pretreating paste made from powdered detergent. The solution should be rubbed into the fabric and then laundered as normal.
SCRAPING Solid material should be scraped away with a dull knife, spoon, or spatula before applying stain remover.  Short strokes should be applied, without pressing to hard,across the surface of the stain.
SPONGING If possible, put an absorbent pad under the stain before starting. Using a sponge or pad, apply the stain removing solution and sponge the stain gently using light strokes working inward toward the center. As either pad  becomes stained, it should be changed. If working on acetate, rayon or triacetate, rings can appear from sponging.  The sponge or pad should be barely wet and the fabric should be touched lightly. Allow to thoroughly dry and do not  iron or dry with heat,

TAMPING To remove stains from durable, tightly woven fabrics, tamping should be done with a soft-bristle brush.  The stained article is place on a hard surface without a pad, and the stain is lightly rapped with he bristles until the stain is removed. This method should only be used when directed as tamping could damage fabrics.

Eight Basic Rules for Spot Removal

  1.           1.  The quicker the better: it is best to treat a stain as soon as it appears. The longer it sets, the more likely the stain
    will be permanent
    2.  Know what you are cleaning: identify both the stain and the surface it is on. Both will have an affect on how you
    treat the stain.
    3.  Clean it off before you clean it: remove as much of the stain as possible before you begin to the stain removal
    4.  Be gentle rubbing, folding, wringing, and squeezing cause stains to penetrate more deeply and may damage delicate
    5.  Keep it cool: avoid using hot water, high heat in dryers, and irons on stains. The heat makes some stains almost
    impossible to remove.
    6.  Pretest stain removers: even water can damage some fabrics, always test any cleaner you plan to use on an
    inconspicuous place before using
    7.  Follow directions: read the manufacturer’s labels and the directions on product containers
    8.  Work from the edges into the center: by working from the edges toward the center, you will not spread the stain or
    leave a ring

In order to identify the type of stain, you need to know the difference between the 3 types of stains.

Did you every drop the buttered popcorn bucket on your lap in the movies, or inadvertently hit the dipstick on your sleeve while checking the oil in your car? Well these are greasy stains. Sometimes a greasy stain can be removed during laundering.
The stain should be pretreated with liquid laundry detergent by gently rubbing it in. If the fabric is nonwashable, the stain should be spotted with a dry-cleaning solution. The removal may take several attempts but the fabric should be allowed to completely dry between attempts.

Greasy stains can also be removed from nonwashable fabrics by using an absorbent, such as cornmeal, cornstarch, French chalk, or fuller’s earth (mineral clay available at most drug stores). Dust the area with the absorbent. When it appears to be caked and dry, brush or shake off the absorbent.

Absorbents are easy to use and will not harm fabrics. However dry cleaning chemicals, detergents, and bleach can damage fabrics. Always pretest an inconspicuous area before using.
A non greasy stain is easy to acquire and not impossible to remove. A non greasy stains include fruit juice, coffee, tea, ink, and also food coloring.

If you are treating a non-greasy stain on a washable fabric, the first thing to do is sponge the stain with cool water as soon as possible. If this doesn’t work, soak the fabric in cool water from 1/2 hour to overnight. If some of the stain is still
present gently rub liquid detergent into the stain and rinse with cool water. As a last resort, bleach can be used only after reading the manufacturer’s label and pretesting an inconspicuous area. If the stain has been ironed or is old, it may be impossible to get out.

If the stain does not come out after sponging it with cool water, a flushing method should be used. Place an absorbent pad under the stain and flush the stain with water by using an eye dropper or spray bottle. Liquid detergent can also be applied if needed. If the stain is new, this method should remove the stain entirely. The spot can be rubbed with alcohol after it is rinsed to remove detergent residue and to speed drying. (CAUTION: If you’re treating acetate, acrylic, modacrylic, rayon,
triacetate, or vinyl, be sure to dilute the alcohol with water, 1 part alcohol to 2 parts water
Combination stains can be double the trouble. Coffee with cream, salad dressing, lipstick contain both greasy and nongreasy stains. Getting rid of combination stains is a two step process. First get rid of the non-greasy stain, using the above methods, and then remove the greasy stain.

Cooking for a Crowd

Food Item Serving Size 12 servings   24 servings 50 servings 100 servings
Meat, poultry, etc  3/4 pound 9 pounds 18 pounds 36 pounds 72 pounds
Chicken Salad 1/2 cup
1 cup (as main dish)
1  1/2 quarts
3 quarts
3 quarts
1  1/2 gallons
1  1/2 gallons
3 gallons
3 gallons
6 gallons
Potato Salad, Coleslaw 1/2 cup 1  1/2 quarts 3 quarts 1  1/2 gallons 3 gallons
Meat Cold Cuts 2  1/2 ounces 2 pounds 4 pounds 8 pounds 16 pounds
Cheese Slices 1 ounce ( 1 slice) 1 pound 2 pounds 4 pounds 8 pounds
Lettuce 1 leaf 3/4 head 1  1/2 heads 3 heads 6 heads
Rolls 1  1/2 rolls 2 dozen 4 dozen 8 dozen 16 dozen
Crackers 4 crackers 8 ounces 1 pound 2 pounds 4 pounds
Tossed Salad 1  1/2 cups 4 1/2 quarts 9 quarts 4  1/2 gallons 9 gallons
Salad Dressing 2 Tablespoons 1  1/2 cups 3 cups 1  1/2 quarts 3 quarts
Bread (for sandwiches) 2 slices 24 slices ( 1  1/2 pound loaves) 50 slices (3 -1 lb. loaves) 100 slices ( 6 -1 lb. loaves) 200 slices (12 -1 lb. loaves)
Chips  1 ounce 12 ounces 1  1/2 pounds 3 pounds 6 pounds
Dip  2 Tablespoons 1  1/2 cups 3 cups 6 cups (1  1/2 quarts) 3 quarts
Spaghetti 1 cup 3 quarts (3/4 gallon) 1  1/4 gallons 2  1/2 gallons 5 gallons
Cake (13 x 9″, 12 c. ring or 9″ layer) 1/16 cake 1 cake 2 cakes (or 1- 10″ 12″ sheey cake) 3 cakes (1- 12″ x 20″ sheet cake) 2 (12″ x 20″ sheet cakes)
Ice Cream 1/2 cup 2 quarts 1 gallon 2 gallons 4 gallons
Whipped Cream  1 Tablespoon 1 cups 2 pints 1 quart 2 quarts
Watermelon 1/2 slice of circumference 18 pounds 37  1/2 pounds 75 pounds 150 pounds
Jello Salad 1/2 cup 6 cups 3/4 gallon (3 quarts) 1  1/2 gallons 3 gallons
Coffee (brewed)
3/4 cup 9 cups water
1  1/2 cups gr. coffee
18 cups water
3 cups gr. coffee
38 cups water (2 gal/1 qt)
5 cups gr. coffee
6 gallon
10 cups coffee (2 pounds)
Tea (loose)
(tea bags)
3/4 cup 9 cups water
1/4 cup tea
12 bags
18 cups water
1/2 cup tea
24 bags
38 cups water
1 cup tea
50 teabags
6 gallons of water
2 cups tea
100 bags
Lemonade/ Punch 1/2 cup 1  1/2 quarts 3 quarts 6 quarts 3 gallons
Ice 4 ounces 3 pounds 6 pounds  12 pounds 25 pounds

Food Measurements

Apples 1 cup sliced or chopped
1 pound
1 medium apple
3 medium
Apricots (dried, halves) 1 cup 5 ounces
Asparagus 16 to 20 stalks 1 pound
Bacon 1/2 crumbled 8 slices crisply cooked
Baking Powder 1 pound
Celery 1 cup thinly sliced or chopped 2 medium stalks
Cheese (American) cubed
(Hard) shredded or crumbled
2 & 2/3 cups
5 cups
1 cup
2 cups
1 cup
1 pound
1 pound
4 ounces
16 ounces
8 ounces
Chocolate (chips)
(unsweetened or semi-sweet baking)
1 cup
1 square or bar
6 ounces
1 ounce
Coconut 1 & 1/3 cups shredded or flaked 3 ounces
Corn, sweet 1 cup kernels 2 medium ears
Cornmeal 3 cups 1 pound
Crab meat 3/4 to 1 cup flaked 1 pound raw uncooked (in shells)
Cranberries (fresh)                   (dried) 4 cups
1 cup chopped
1 cup
1 pound
1 cup whole
4 ounces
Cream (sour)
1 cup
1 cup (2 cups whipped)
8 ounces
1/2 pint
Crumbs (bread)              (chocolate wafer)
(graham cracker)
(saltine cracker)
(vanilla wafer)
1 cup soft crumbs
1 cup dry crumbs
1 & 1/2 cups
1 & 1/2 cups
1 cup
1 & 1/2 cups
1 & 1/2 slices
4 to 5 slices, oven dried
27 cookies
21 squares
29 squares
38 cookies
Cucumber 1 cup chopped 3/4 medium
Dates 2 cups whole, pitted
1 cup chopped
12 ounces
6 ounces
Eggplant 1 medium
2 cups 1/2 inch pieces
1 & 1/2 pounds
12 ounces
Eggs, large (whole)     (whites)
1 cup
1 egg
1 cup
1 cup
4 large eggs
1/4 cup cholesterol free egg product
7 to 8 eggs
8 to 9 eggs
Flour (unsifted)
(sifted cake flour)
(rye flour)
3 & 3/4 cups
4 cups
4 & 1/2 cups
5 cups
1 pound
1 pound

4 cups
Garlic 1/2 teaspoon finely chopped 1 medium clove
Gelatin (flavored)
3 & 1/4 ounces
1/4 ounce
1/2 cup
1 Tablespoon
Lemon or lime 1 & 1/2 to 3 teaspoons grated peel
2 to 3 Tablespoons juice
1 medium
Lettuce (iceberg or romaine) 1 medium head
2 cups shredded
6 cups bite size pieces
1 & 1/2 pounds
5 ounces
1 pound
Margarine, Butter or spread 2 cups
1/2 cup
1 pound
1 stick (1/4 pound)
Marshmallows 1 large
10 miniature
1/4 pound
Meat, cooked (beef, pork and poultry) 1 cup chopped or cut into bite sized pieces 6 ounces
Melons (cantaloupe or honeydew) 1 medium
2 cups 1 inch chunks
3 pounds
1 pound
Mushrooms (fresh) 6 cups sliced
2 & 1/2 cups chopped
1 pound
8 ounces
Nuts, without shells- (chopped)
(whole or halves)
walnuts (broken)
1 cup
3 to 4 cups
3 & 1/2 cups
3 cups
4 ounces
1 pound

Onions (green with tops)             (yellow or white) 2 Tablespoons chopped
1/4 cup sliced
1/2 cup chopped
2 medium
3 to 4 medium
1 medium
Oranges 1 to 2 Tablespoons grated peel
1/3 to 1/2 cup juice
1 medium
Pasta, macaroni, noodles ands spaghetti 4 cups cooked 6 to 8 ounces uncooked (dry)
Peaches and pears 2 cups sliced 3 medium
Peas, green 1 cup shelled 1 pound in pod
Peppers, bell 1/2 cup chopped
1 cup chopped
1 small
1 medium
Pineapple, fresh 4 cups cubed 1 medium (3 pounds with top)
Potatoes, (new)
(red, white, sweet or yam)
(red or white)
10 to 12 small
1 medium
1 cup 1/2 inch pieces
1 and 1/2 pounds
5 to 6 ounces
1 medium
Pumpkin 1 cup mashed cooked peeled 1 pound uncooked or 1 cup canned
Raisins 3 and 1/2 cups 1 pound
Rice, regular long grain 3 cups cooked 1 cup uncooked
Shrimp (uncooked with shells)
(cooked without shells)
1 pound

10 to 12 count
15 to 20 count
26 to 30 count
40 to 50 count
1 and 1/3 pounds uncooked, with shells
Spinach 4 cups leaves
2 cups shredded
6 ounces
2 and 1/2 ounces
Summer (crookneck, yellow, or zucchini)
Winter (acorn, buttercup, butternut or spaghetti)
2 cups 1/4 slices, chopped or shredded1 medium 1 medium1 and 1/2 to 2 and 1/2 pounds
Strawberries 4 cups sliced 1 quart
Sugar (Brown)